Argentine Opuntia or Opuntia argentina, or simply the Argentia cactus, has its origins in Argentina and South Africa. These cacti grow in the form of large, thick and egg-shaped ‘leaves’ that emerge from a central stem. These are flat but succulent.
The flowers tend to bloom in the months of summer and are yellow in color, often leading to purple fruit. These plants grow rapidly and can grow unruly unless you restrict their growth.
195 Opuntia Varieties [With Pictures]
How to Care for the Argentine Opuntia
If you’re planning to incorporate the Argentine Opuntia into your garden, here’s everything you need to know about caring for it.
Like any heliophilic plant, flourishing in open environments with plenty of direct sunlight, the Argentine Opuntia also requires ample direct sunlight to grow and bloom.
The best idea is to place them in open spaces such as exposed gardens or outdoor balconies, as these plants will soak up the sun for as long as it’s available throughout the day!
However, during the hot summer months, give the plants a little cooling time and shade to prevent damage from extreme heat; in the wild, this damage is part and parcel of daily life and doesn’t matter so much, but if you’re growing Argentine Opuntia for decorative purposes, this becomes a necessary measure.
Like most cacti, Argentine Opuntia is a drought-tolerant plant, used to arid conditions and extremely infrequent rain.
Therefore, these plants do not require frequent watering; in fact, they’re more likely to die of root rot than underwatering in a home garden!
Once you’ve potted your Argentine Opuntia, water it slowly, waiting in between to see if the water flows out of the bottom—a sign to stop watering.
If you have a tray beneath the pot, ensure that you empty the water that’s flowed out of the pot and collected in the tray, preventing water accumulation.
Argentine Opuntia cacti grow during the spring, summer, and fall months, during which time it is necessary to water them weekly once or twice so that the soil is always slightly wet.
During the cold winter months, water is just enough to prevent excessive drying of the soil (generally, watering once a week achieves this).
It is also advisable to use distilled water or rainwater to water your Argentine Opuntia, as tap water contains a lot of added minerals, chemicals, and salts that could cause soil compaction in the long run.
Another helpful tip is not to splash water on the plant’s stem while watering; doing so could result in rotting.
The Argentine Opuntia cacti love soil that is rich in gravel, water-permeable, and fertile, with a pH value between 6 and 7.
When grown at home or in non-wild conditions, the ideal soil combination is 20% coco coir/peat moss, 60% vermiculite, and 20% sandy soil, with or without a tiny amount of organic potting soil.
Vermiculite ensures air permeability—highly essential as the roots of the Argentine Opuntia are extremely susceptible to root rot when oxygen is deficient.
Therefore, the soil should also drain well, in addition to being air-permeable (a good way to check this is to see if water quickly drains through the soil, instead of pooling at the surface and then slowly getting absorbed by the soil).
Repotting and loosening the soil annually will also help maintain air permeability.
For better soil fertility, vermicompost and eggshell powder can also be incorporated.
In their vegetating months (spring, summer, and fall), your Argentine Opuntia should be fertilized with liquid fertilizer once a month.
Keep off the fertilizer in the winter months; if you’re repotting in spring or fall, you can incorporate a tiny amount of slow-release fertilizer into the soil—this will sustain the plant through the winter months.
Opt for phosphate-potassium fertilizers for the periods before and after the cactus blooms, whereas nitrogen fertilizer is best for the seedling phase.
Make sure the concentration of fertilizer is as low as possible; over-fertilizing is always more harmful than under-fertilizing; a great way to prevent the former is to use low-concentrate fertilizers and fertilize several times.
Slow growth in the base, accompanied by yellowing, could be a sign of over-fertilizing—if you notice this in your plant, stop fertilizing immediately.
As mentioned earlier, the Argentine Opuntia thrives in desert-like conditions, with high temperatures, strong sunlight, and minimal rainfall.
They also do well in subtropical and tropical regions with the same conditions.
The ideal temperature that Argentine Opuntia plants enjoy is between 68 and 95°F; at temperatures lower than 50 or higher than 95, plant growth rate reduces and dormancy starts setting in.
The plant’s surroundings should be well-ventilated and the humidity in the air shouldn’t be high, so water accumulation and high-humidity areas should be avoided.
Some of the pests and diseases that Argentine Opuntia is prone to are:
- Anthracnose: Small black dots that appear in a spiral pattern on the plant’s upper parts, caused by extreme humidity and temperatures.
- Stem Rot: A common disease caused by a range of reasons, such as insects, cold-induced wounds, and infected soil.
- Root-knot Nematode: Caused by insects that darken the stem and leaf surfaces, eventually resulting in death.
- Spider Mites: Tiny insects that build web-like structures and cause the leaves to turn red and yellow.
- Aphids: Tiny pests that cause yellowing and distortion in growth.
- Other Diseases: These include mealybugs, soft rot, viruses such as local necrosis and mosaic leaves, rodents, and dry rot.
A great thing about Argentine Opuntia is that it requires minimal pruning. Just remove any dead/withered branches and flowers to prevent any potential unhealthiness from spreading.
Pot the plant when the temperatures outside are between 59 and 68°F, generally during fall and spring.
While seeding, the air humidity should be high, and you should cover the soil with a plastic film to maintain this humidity. The film can be removed once germination starts.
Use clay flower pots as these are permeable and ensure that they are not too small or too large, as this could cause restrictions in root development and water accumulation, respectively.
Repotting is unnecessary for large Argentine Opuntia plants, but if you’re growing them in pots, repot once a year—lift the whole plant, get rid of old soil hanging to it, place it in another container, and fill the container with potting soil.
How to Propagate the Argentine Opuntia
Division and grafting are effective methods to propagate Argentine Opuntia.
To divide, cut off the stem’s lateral branches or the plant’s tip and plant this in soil; in a few months, you’ll notice small shoots growing up.
For grafting, you’ll need a suitable rootstock. Once you have it, cut off its tip, put the Argentine Opuntia, with roots removed, in the rootstock’s center, and secure it with rope. In a couple of weeks, you’ll see the parts growing together, and you can now remove the rope.
You could also try seeding, as mentioned earlier.