Aeonium is the name of an extensive plant genus, which is often cultivated because of its pretty rosettes made of fleshy, usually spoon-shaped leaves. Aeonium are able to store water in their thick-meat leaves and thus survive comparatively unrivalled in dry places. Aeonium is a member of the family Crassulaceae.
In some Aeonium varieties, the rosettes sit on longer, woody stems. In other species, however, the stem is so short that they appear to be stemless. All rosettes always discard their lowest leaves.
Some Aeonium grows with only one stem and one rosette, while other species have several stems. The leaves of the Aeonium varieties can be thick and tough or soft and brittle. In all species with woody stem, the stem is covered with scars at the bases of the leaves.
In the middle of the rosettes of mature specimens, numerous small, mostly star-shaped, cream-colored or yellow-green colored flowers form. The Aeonium can bloom at any time of the year. However, after a rosette has developed flowers – which is usually only the case with plants of four to five years old – it dies. Under these circumstances, the care of plants with only one rosette is finished after flowering.
Branched Aeonium varieties with several rosettes almost always bloom on all shoots at the same time. Sometimes, regardless of the fact, one or the other rosettes may delay flowering.
- 1 General Aeonium Varieties Care
- 2 Aeonium Varieties
- 2.1 Aeonium aizoon
- 2.2 Aeonium appendiculatum
- 2.3 Aeonium arboreum
- 2.4 Aeonium arboreum cv ‘Zwartkop’
- 2.5 Aeonium arboreum var. atropurpureum
- 2.6 Aeonium arboreum var. holochrysum
- 2.7 Aeonium arboreum var. luteovariegatum
- 2.8 Aeonium arboreum var. rubrolineatum
- 2.9 Aeonium aureum
- 2.10 Aeonium balsamiferum
- 2.11 Aeonium canariense
- 2.12 Aeonium canariense var. palmense
- 2.13 Aeonium canariense var. subplanum
- 2.14 Aeonium canariense var. virgineum
- 2.15 Aeonium x casanovense
- 2.16 Aeonium x castellodecorum
- 2.17 Aeonium castello-paivae
- 2.18 Aeonium ciliatum
- 2.19 Aeonium cuneatum
- 2.20 Aeonium cv ‘Sunburst’
- 2.21 Aeonium davidbramwellii
- 2.22 Aeonium decorum
- 2.23 Aeonium diplocyclum
- 2.24 Aeonium dodrantale
- 2.25 Aeonium glandulosum
- 2.26 Aeonium glutinosum
- 2.27 Aeonium gomerense
- 2.28 Aeonium goochiae
- 2.29 Aeonium gorgoneum
- 2.30 Aeonium hawbicum
- 2.31 Aeonium haworthii
- 2.32 Aeonium hierrense
- 2.33 Aeonium x holospathulatum
- 2.34 Aeonium x isorense
- 2.35 Aeonium korneliuslemsii
- 2.36 Aeonium lancerottense
- 2.37 Aeonium x laxiflorum
- 2.38 Aeonium leucoblepharum
- 2.39 Aeonium x lidii
- 2.40 Aeonium lindleyi
- 2.41 Aeonium x loartei
- 2.42 Aeonium mascaense
- 2.43 Aeonium nobile
- 2.44 Aeonium occidentale
- 2.45 Aeonium percarneum
- 2.46 Aeonium x robustum
- 2.47 Aeonium x sanchezii
- 2.48 Aeonium saundersii
- 2.49 Aeonium sedifolium
- 2.50 Aeonium simsii
- 2.51 Aeonium smithii
- 2.52 Aeonium spathulatum
- 2.53 Aeonium x sventenii
- 2.54 Aeonium tabuliforme
- 2.55 Aeonium x tenensis
- 2.56 Aeonium undulatum
- 2.57 Aeonium urbicum
- 2.58 Aeonium x wildpretii
General Aeonium Varieties Care
Aeonium Varieties Light Requirements
The Aeonium varieties, which are cultivated as houseplants, require a bright location with a lot of direct sunlight all year round. If the light conditions are not sufficient, the leaves grow deformed and elongated and die. A sunny and warm location on a south window is best.
Aeonium Varieties Water Requirements
Aeonium is to be watered moderately. The roots of the succulents must only be kept slightly moist. Before watering again, make sure that the top 1 to 2 cm of the soil is dry. Overall, it is better to water this plant too little than too often.
Aeonium likes to be watered very sparingly during the rest period between October and February. This succulent needs to be given just enough water that the soil does not completely dry out.
Like any other succulents, Aeonium does not tolerate waterlogging. Excess water must be able to drain freely or be poured out of the planter no later than 5 minutes after watering, because wetness quickly leads to root rot in these succulents.
Rainwater is cheaper for the Aeonium, but this succulent also loves ordinary tap water that is not too calcareous.
How Often to Water Succulents?
Aeonium Varieties Soil Requirements
The ideal soil for Aeonium is a substrate mixture of nutrient-poor soil and mineral components. A substrate for succulents should be well permeable to water, so that no water can accumulate after watering. This can be achieved by mixing 60% succulent soil (also called cactus soil) and 40% mineral components, such as gravel or perlite, lava rocks and some quartz sand.
The open-pored mineral components, perlites and granules support the air flow and crumb structure of the substrate, they store the nutrients and moisture, but allow excess water to flow quickly after watering.
6 Best Soil for Succulents in Pots
Aeonium Varieties Climate Requirements
Aeonium thrives well in warm temperatures between 18°C and 23°C. During the winter rest period, these succulents prefer temperatures around 12°C and as much direct sunlight as possible. Temperatures below 10°C are not tolerated by Aeonium varieties.
Aeonium Varieties Fertilizer Requirements
Fertilize Aeonium with a weak solution of succulent fertilizer every four weeks during the growth phase. Do not fertilize during the rest period from September to February.
Propagating Aeonium Varieties
The branching Aeonium varieties can be propagated by cuttings. At the beginning of the growing period, cut off 3 to 4 cm long shoots, let them dry for two to three days and then place the cuttings in a moistened succulent soil.
For faster rooting, it is possible to dip the cuttings into a rooting hormone beforehand, but this is not necessary. The freshly inserted cuttings of the aeonium are to be placed in a bright but not completely sunny place until successful rooting and watered just enough that the soil remains a little moist.
After three to four weeks, the first roots should have formed. After about 6 weeks, the young plants can be put in a partially sunny to fully sunny location and then the plants can be maintained like full-grown specimens.
Aeonium varieties that are without side shoots can only be propagated by seeds.
Aeonium propagation from leaves
Aeonium propagation is possible through leaves as well. Leaf cuttings are obtained from a single leaf that is plucked or cut as deep as possible from the rosette.
With leaf cuttings, a completely new plant grows from the leaf. If this is about one centimeter in size, it can be placed in a special substrate for succulents. Until the following summer, the young plant should not be exposed to the blazing midday sun.
If you are wondering what kind of succulent you have, this article will help you identify 58 Aeonium varieties, both the common and the rare breeds.
For other types of succulents, check out the 1,000 Types of Succulents With Pictures.
Aeonium aizoon, best known as Greenovia aizoon, is a perennial succulent that forms a clump of tiny, dark green rosettes, with dead leaves persisting on the much-branched very reduced stems. The flowering stem is about 15 cm high, terminating in a flat head of small yellow flowers.
Aeonium appendiculatum is a perennial monocarpic unbranched subshrub that grows up to 1m tall. Its rosettes are 30 – 35 cm in diameter and rather flat with leaves that are oblanceolate to subobovate, apically attenuate, strongly apiculate and usually mucronate, basally cuneate, glaucous and glabrous. Inflorescences are dome-shaped, with white and often pinkish variegated flowers.
The tree houseleek, Aeonium arboreum var. arboreum, is a rather open subshrub 1(2) metres tall, without prop roots. It bears flat rosettes of leaves and large pyramidal panicles of bright yellow flowers in the spring. Each rosette that bloom will die. The purple cultivar, Aeonium arboreum var. atropurpureum cv. Schwarzkopf (Zwartkop), with rosettes of deep blackish-purple leaves is more commonly found in cultivation than the natural green species. There is also a white variety (Aeonium arboreum var. albovariegatum).
Aeonium arboreum cv ‘Zwartkop’
The black rose, Aeonium arboreum var. atropurpureum f. nigrum cv. Schwarzkopf (Zwartkop), is a branching succulent shrub that produces magnificent, shiny black-purple, leaf rosettes at the ends of its branches. It reacts to sunlight, and the stronger the sunlight, the blacker it becomes. It really is quite extraordinary. It’s fleshy, but then if you touch it to break the end of the leaf, it feels almost like plastic. It produces golden pyramids of flowers in late spring.
Aeonium arboreum var. atropurpureum
Aeonium arboreum var. atropurpureum is a branching succulent shrub that produces magnificent, almost black-purple, leaf rosettes at the ends of its branches. It is a variety of Aeonium arboreum.
Aeonium arboreum var. holochrysum
Aeonium arboreum var. holochrysum are common in there natural habitat in the Canary Islands but not often found in cultivation. It is branching and can grow to a good size (1 metre+) and in strong sunlight, the leaves can turn a reddish-brown colour.
Aeonium arboreum var. luteovariegatum
Aeonium arboreum var. luteovariegatum is a winter growing succulent that forms large rosettes of variegated green and white leaves with vibrant coppery red margins. These rosettes are usually connected to stalks of up to 18 inches tall.
Aeonium arboreum var. rubrolineatum
Aeonium arboreum var. rubrolineatum is a nursery cultivar obtained from the species “Aeonium arboreum”, selected for the interesting color of the leaves, which are green in winter, but in summer, with the intense light, they turn yellow-orange, and red-brownish stripes appear.
Aeonium aureum (Greenovia aurea) is a monocarpic perennials succulent plant that forms a dwarf prostrate, clump that reacing a height between 30 and 45 centimeters. It bears cup-shaped rosettes of leaves and deep yellow flowers in the spring. Its leaves are rounded and spathulate, with a short point or tip, grey-green-velvet covered with a bluish-green waxy layer.
Aeonium aureum also forms a corresponding hibernation stage in summer, with the younger leaves forming a dense, narrow cylinder while the older leaves wilt but are still attached to the rosette, protecting it further against drough. The rosette take a rose-bud shape and resemble closely a bright green rose. It is cultivated by succulent plant enthusiasts and is the most commonly grown Greenovia.
Aeonium balsamiferum is a shrub of several rosettes of sticky, bright green leaves. Each rosette has a diameter of more or less 20 centimeters and grows on a wooden stem. This stems form groups which give to the plant the aspect of a bush. The flowers are yellow.
Aeonium balsamiferum is very rare and almost extinct in its native habitat.
Aeonium canariense (Canary Island Aeonium) is an impressive evergreen succulent with large velvety rosettes, 6-12 in. across (15-30 cm), of fleshy leaves. Fresh green when grown in part shade, the soft, fuzzy leaves become tinged with reddish pink when exposed to the sun.
Aeonium canariense var. palmense
Aeonium canariense var. palmense is rare in cultivation. It is endemic to La Palma and grows on shady, moist slopes meaning that it is suitable for wetter, shady spots in the garden, although it also performs well in full sun. Rosettes are bowl-shaped up to 40cm diameter.
Aeonium canariense var. subplanum
Aeonium canariense var. subplanum is an Aeonium which offshoots to form a small shrub around 30-50cm tall. It has thin and small light green leaves and forms large yellow flower offshoots in spring. The leaves may have a pink tinge on the outer edge when grown in cold or dry conditions.
Aeonium canariense var. virgineum
Aeonium canariense var. virgineum is a medium-sized Aeonium prized for its soft velvety appearance, and profuse mounds of bright green rosettes covered in small hairs. In bright sun, these rosettes can form a red edge adding to its dramatic appearance.
Aeonium x casanovense
Aeonium x castellodecorum
Aeonium castello-paivae, also known as Aeonium cv. Suncup, is a most delightful evergreen, variegated cultivars with succulent rosettes, in pale green splashed with creamy white, forming compact clumps to about 30 cm tall and wide, and has been erroneously sold in the past under the name of Aeonium cv. Abbey Brook. It’s also being distributed as Aeonium torulosum (not a valid name.). It is one of the smaller Aeonium varieties but produces multiple offsets. With Aeonium “Suncup” almost every offset is different.
A tall shrubby succulent to 4 to 6 feet by as wide with large 1 foot wide (grows tallest with even larger rosettes in shade) terminal rosettes of gray-green leaves that have ciliate reddish margins and smaller rosettes branching below from along the main stem which is gray colored and textured with brown leaf scars. Both this branching and stem texture are distinguishing characteristic of this species. In early summer the showy dome-shaped inflorescence bearing small cream flowers rises another 2 feet above the foliage.
This species is endemic to Tenerife, the largest and most populated of the Canary Islands, where it grows along the summit and northern slopes of the Anaga region. It differs from the closely related Aeonium urbicum in having leaves that are glabrous on stems that are branched and have scaly leaf scars while the generally taller Aeonium urbicum has leaves with hairs in solitary rosettes on smooth stems. Aeonium urbicum also is spring blooming while Aeonium ciliatum begins flowering in summer.
Latin for wedge-shaped, this Aeonium has a large cup-like rosette and no stem. The leaves are light green and smooth and have a grey shine to the upper surface which can be rubbed. It offshoots readily to form a large clump. The flower is yellow and like some Aeonium varieties, this species is self-seeding.
Aeonium cv ‘Sunburst’
Aeonium cv ‘Sunburst’ is a branching, variegated succulent. Its leaves are white and green, with pink edges that turn red in full sun. Watch for white flowers in the summer. It is monocarpic, meaning that after it flowers, the main plant will die.
Aeonium davidbramwellii is a branching succulent with large rosettes, up to 12 inches (30 cm) in diameter, of dark green leaves with reddish-brown margins. It is very similar but more compact than the Aeonium ciliatum. The broad clusters of star-shaped and white-reddish flowers appear from late winter through early spring.
Aeonium decorum (Green Pinwheel) is a small succulent shrub, up to 2 feet (60 cm) tall, with dark green to yellowish-green leaves arranged in rosettes on thick, ascending, or pendent branches. It is an evergreen succulent perennial forming low clumps of small rosettes, 2 in. wide (5 cm).
Aeonium diplocyclum (Greenovia diplocycla) is an evergreen perennial succulent up to 2.4 inches (6 cm) tall. The rosettes are up to 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter, light yellowish green in full sun and finely white powered, if plants are grown in full sun. During their summer dormancy rosettes will close cup-like and are covered with beige-red, dry leaf sheaths. The flowers are larger than those in Aeonium aureum and young leaves are ciliated at their edges. Plants remain solitary and they will never form any offsets.
Aeonium dodrantale, also known as Greenovia dodrantalis, is a succulent perennial, up to 2.4 inches (6 cm) tall, with rosettes that produce offsets on up to 3.2 inches (8 cm) long stalks. Rosettes are cup- or urn-shaped and up to 2.4 inches (6 cm) in diameter, with densely packed leaves even when growing tightly closed during the dry season. The leaves are blue-green with a waxy surface, roundish, up to 1.4 inches (3.5 cm) long, and up to 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) wide. Yellow flowers appear in spring and rise on strong stalks up to 10 inches (25 cm) above the foliage.
Aeonium glandulosum is a biennial to perennial, succulent plant with a very short stem. The leaves are arranged in a dense rosette. They are succulent, obovate to rhomboidal-spatulate and up to 4 inches (10 cm) long. The flowers come out in large, ramose panicle, emerging from the center of the rosette.
Aeonium glutinosum is a species from Madeira. This plant has a natural sticky substance on the leaves and stem. In good light the leaves can produce a red tinge which is very attractive.
Aeonium gomerense is a branching succulent subshrub from the Canary Islands. It forms a flat, open rosette of green leaves with a reddish margin. When planted outdoors in Mediterranean climates it can grow stems over 4.0′ tall and the rosette can reach 11.0″ in diameter.
Aeonium goochiae is a small, permanent, succulent tree that grows up to 12 inches (30 cm) in length, with highly stirring stems and small, light green to dark reddish egg rosettes in the shape of a diamond. Flowers of up to 0.6 inches (1.5 cm) in diameter are white to pale pink. In mid-spring they flourish.
Aeonium gorgoneum is a species that is rarely found in cultivation. It is not like most Aeonium varieties as it is not from the Canary Islands, instead in grows in the more tropical Cape Verde Islands. It has attractive light green-yellow leaves that take on a pink tinge in strong light levels.
Aeonium haworthii (Pinwheel Aeonium) is a winter-growing, freely-branching, succulent shrub, up to 2 feet (60 cm) tall and with an equal spread. On its many branches are borne rosettes, up to 4 inches (10 cm) in diameter, of bluish-green leaves that are keeled on the lower surface and often tinged red along the ciliate margins. The flowers, which appear in late spring, rise above the foliage in a branched inflorescence and are very pale yellow to nearly white and sometimes tinged pink.
Aeonium hierrense is a very rare, monocarpic succulent plant with impressive rosettes. Its single rosette has beautiful glaucous, bluish green leaves with some red patterns in full sun and may reach up to 3.3 feet (1 m) or even more in well-developed specimens with leaves up to 10 inches (40 cm) long. It makes thousands of almost pure white to pale rose flowers.
Aeonium x holospathulatum
Aeonium x isorense
Aeonium korneliuslemsii comes from Morocco. This species grows upright, slightly branching to over 1 meter high and offsets from the base.
Aeonium lancerottense is a densely branched evergreen shrub up to 60 cm (2 feet) tall. Several succulent, soft, green, smooth rosettes with a diameter of up to 6 inches (15 cm) are held densely on thick twists to form a circled shrub with a width up to 3 feet (90 cm). The floral cones on the base are up to 1 foot (30 cm) in size and consist of many starry, rose flowers. In the summer they appear and rise to 2 feet (60 cm) above the leaves on strong stalks.
Aeonium x laxiflorum
Aeonium leucoblepharum is an evergreen succulent which form a branched shrub up to 75-80 centimeters high and 50 cm wide. Each branch bears a rosette of pointed, green-reddish-pinkish leaves (the color depends on the exposure to sunlight: if the plant is put in a bright spot, the leaves become more pinkish). In the central part of each leaf there is a really beautiful red stripe. This feature makes it really good for being put in terracotta pots. The inflorescence is a raceme of yellow flowers, with 7-10 petals. This species is really variable: this means that different individuals of the same species can present meaningful differences.
Aeonium x lidii
Aeonium lindleyi is a small perennial succulent sub-shrub that forms small bushes about 20-50 cm high, with numerous branches carrying small rosettes. The leaves are succulent and covered with hair; they are also sticky. The flowers are yellow. Aeonium lindleyi var. lindleyi can be distinguished from var. viscatum by its extremely fleshy (usually more than 5 mm thick) and distinctly pubescent leaves.
Aeonium x loartei
Aeonium x loartei is a lovely compact hybrid with fantastic green rosettes with strong red markings. It is a hybrid of Aeonium sedifolium and Aeonium spathulatum and has the best qualities of both. Also found named as Aeonium arnoldii.
Aeonium x mascaense is a nice small succulent plant only up to 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide with rosettes. There are many rosettes, which form a nice, limestone-green mound up to 2 feet (60 cm) in length and over 18 inches (45 cm) in height. The leaves are very thick and pinchy and have a strong red stripe down the middle. The flora is greenish, and can be measured up to 10 cm (4 inches) in clusters.
Aeonium nobile is a succulent plant that forms large rosettes up to 15 inches (37.5 cm) in diameter. The leaves are thick, fleshy, yellowish-green, occasionally reddish or brownish variegated especially along the margin, up to 2 inches (5 cm) long and up to 1.2 inches (3 cm) wide. After several years the plant matures and in late winter to spring produces a large inflorescence that rises on a red stalk to display a flattened capitate head over 1 foot (30 cm) wide and nearly as tall with many small, star-shaped, red flowers with white anthers.
Aeonium percarneum is a perennial, few-branched shrub, up to 3.3 feet (1 m) tall, with rosettes up to 8 inches (20 cm) in diameter. Leaves are dark green, often reddish variegated along the margin, up to 4 inches (10 cm) long and up to 1.6 inches (4 cm) wide.
Aeonium x robustum
Aeonium x sanchezii
Aeonium saundersii forms a short compact grower form that offsets readily, with highly succulent hairy leaves that developed a red tinge in strong light. They are found growing in small mountainous pockets on the island of Gomera.
Aeonium sedifolium is a small succulent plant with delicate branching stems, up to 6 inches (15 cm) tall and wide, bearing small rosettes of up to 0.5 inch (1.3 cm) long, rounded, sticky, lime-green leaves. They are streaked with red stripes that radiate upward in the rosette, unlike most of the larger flat topped Aeonium varieties. In spring appear the bright yellow, star-shaped flowers.
Aeonium simsii is a succulent plant with relatively low leaf rosettes of 8 inches (20 cm) tall, but it prolifically branches to form a dense coating of earth-shaking tubes. In comparison to the generally larger and leggier forms of many of the other species, the Sempervivum is similar. The shiny green leaves have strap-shaped tips. There are many dark-green short lines running in a longitudinal direction to the lower surface of the leaf and a vile-brown line sometimes appears in the upper surface.
Aeonium smithii is a perennial deciduous, succulent shrublets to 60 cm high. It has rather untypical characteristics that distinguish it from other Aeonium varieties. The leaves are spotted on the underside only, and when these fall off, there remains along the lower edge of the cicatrices a row of stiff hairs. After the falling of the leaves the hairiness increases and the stem becomes generally hispid (shaggy), though older stems tend to lose these hair.
The leaves are spoon-shaped, undulated with many soft hairs, deep green with red stripes on both sides velvety to the touch and glossy on the upper surface. It is extremely prolific in blossoms, the flower stalks are up 15 cm tall above the rosettes of leaves. The flower are yellow 2.5 cm across, have usually 10-12 petals, eighteen stamens, and 10-12 pistils.
Aeonium spathulatum is a branching succulent shrub up to 3 feet (90 cm) tall, with spoon shaped leaves up to 1.2 inches (3 cm) long, that are slightly sticky to touch. It will go slightly red in color when exposed to strong light and will flower within a few years. The flowers are star-shaped and golden yellow in color.
Aeonium x sventenii
Aeonium x sventenii is an Aeonium hybrid between Aeonium manriqueorum and Aeonium simsii. It has tall, erect, thick and sparingly branched stem and leaves that are in dense, flattish rosettes.
Aeonium tabuliforme is a strange and wonderful stemless, ground hugging, rosette. Usually single or offsetting which used to be flat as a pancake. As with most of the stemless species, this one is monocarpic. Its leaves are rounded, soft-green more or less spathulate with long cilia on the margin. The flower stem is erect, arises from the middle of the rosette and reaches 50-60 cm of height. It produces many small yellow flowers. The Aeonium lives about 3 years then dies after blooming.
Aeonium x tenensis
Aeonium undulatum is a succulent, evergreen subshrub, one of the larger Aeonium varieties with somewhat metallic-green wavy up to 10 inches (25 cm) long spoon-shaped leaves that form large rosettes on stout-stems often over 3.3 feet (1 m) from the ground. Other rosettes do not branch off this stem (normally) but grow from the bottom, unlike most Aeonium varieties. Flowers are a dark yellow in a terminal cluster rising up to 20 inches (50 cm) above the foliage, usually in summer..The plant is monocarpic so the flowering stem will die when it flowers which is normally after about 5 years.
Aeonium urbicum is a perennial monocarpic (that flower, set seeds and then die) unbranched (or rarely few-branched) subshrubs to 2 metres high, similar to Aeonium webbii. It has huge “dinner plate” rosettes spanning 15 to 30 centimetres with loosely arranged, pale green leaves. It is an incredible succulent that at flowering time makes one of the biggest flowering heads you will ever see. Flowers are pink to greenish white. It owes its name Urbicum to the fact that in its native home it grows on the roofs of houses in towns and villages.